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Defects of free forging

Cracks may be caused by poor billet quality, insufficient heating, low forging temperature, improper cooling of forgings and incorrect forging methods.

The end sag and the axial crack may be caused by the heat in the billet during forging or the whole section of the billet is not forged.

Folding, may be due to the billet in the forging when the feed is less than the amount of single pressure.